Opel Vectra A
since 1988-1995 of release
Repair and car operation
Vektr A. Opel
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 1.1 Maintenance
+ 2. Engine
+ 3. Repair of DOHC engines
+ 4. Repair of the diesel engine
+ 5. Cooling system
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. A fuel and exhaust system of models with system of injection of fuel
+ 8. Exhaust system and system of fall of toxicity of exhaust gases
+ 9. Fuel systems of the diesel engine
- 10. Engine electrosystems
10.2. General information
10.3. Ignition system
10.4. Check of system of ignition
10.5. Rules of care of the accumulator
10.6. Accumulator check
10.7. Battery charging
10.9. Charging system
10.11. Driving belt of the generator
10.12. Removal and generator installation
10.13. Generator brushes
10.14. BOSCH generator
10.15. Small-sized DELCO-REMY generator
10.16. System of start of the engine
10.18. Removal and starter installation
10.19. Ignition coil
10.20. Cover and rotor of the distributor of ignition
10.21. Distributor of ignition (SOHC model)
10.22. Distributor of ignition (DOHC model)
+ 10.23. Repair of the distributor of ignition
10.24. Check and adjustment of a corner of an advancing of ignition
10.25. Fine tuning of the moment of ignition under a used grade of fuel
10.26. Electronic modules
10.27. Elements MSTS-i
10.28. Sensor of speed/provision of a cranked shaft (model of 1,8 l)
10.29. Motronic system elements
10.30. Sensor of a detonation (DOHC model)
10.31. DIS module
10.32. Sensor of phases of a camshaft (HE C20 engine)
10.33. System of prestarting heating
10.34. Glow plugs
+ 11. Transmission
+ 12. Mechanical transmission
+ 13. Automatic transmission
+ 14. Power shafts
+ 15. Brake system
+ 16. Suspension bracket
+ 17. Body
+ 18. Electric equipment
+ 19. Check of malfunctions
At works on electric system not to damage semi-conductor devices (diodes and transistors) it is necessary to fulfill the following requirements:
– in operating time of the engine do not disconnect the accumulator, the generator of an alternating current or any electric sockets;
The system of ignition makes ignition of a fuel mix in engine cylinders at some point depending on engine and loading turns. On cars many various types of systems of ignition are established.
The system of ignition eats from an onboard network of the car. In the ignition coil tension of an onboard network of the car will be transformed to a high voltage. The high voltage is used for formation of a spark between electrodes of spark plugs in engine cylinders in a compression step. The chain of a low voltage or primary chain consists of electroconducting which connects the accumulator, the ignition lock, primary winding of the coil of ignition and the electronic block of ignition. The chain of a high voltage or a secondary chain consists of a high-voltage winding of the coil of ignition, the central high-voltage wire, the distributor of ignition, a rotor of the distributor, high-voltage wires of spark plugs and spark plugs.
The coil of ignition will transform a faltering current of a low voltage (+12 In) to a high-tension current for breakdown of an air gap between electrodes of spark plugs. The coil of ignition represents the transformer with opened magnitoprovody which consists of the internal core and external ring магнитопровода. The secondary winding having a large number of rounds, is reeled up round the core. Primary winding (with smaller number of rounds) is reeled up over the secondary.
At tension switching off on primary winding of the coil of ignition power failure of a magnetic field in a secondary winding generates a high voltage which via the distributor of ignition moves to a candle of the corresponding cylinder. Then tension again moves to primary winding of the coil of ignition therefore the magnetic field increases and the cycle repeats for giving of a high voltage to the following spark plug.
HEI systemThe HEI system includes the ignition distributor with the breaker, the switchboard, the ignition and spark plug coil. · The electronic impulse necessary for switching off of tension, submitted to primary winding of the coil of ignition is formed by the magnetic trigger in the ignition distributor. The cogwheel of the trigger rotates in a constant magnetic field. The size of a magnetic field between ledges of a stator and a cogwheel depends on an air gap between poles. At the minimum air gap when the ledge of a cogwheel is located directly ahead of a ledge of a stator there is a formation of an impulse. Because the magnetic field between stator and cogwheel ledges constantly changes in the electromagnetic winding of the trigger established under a cogwheel, tension is generated. This tension amplifies the switchboard and is used for shutdown of primary winding of the coil of ignition. For each cylinder it is used on one ledge of the trigger and a stator.
The corner of an advancing of ignition is set by the distributor and corrected centrifugal and vacuum by regulators. The centrifugal regulator consists of two грузиков which at increase in turns of the engine under the influence of centrifugal force disperse from a distributor shaft. Dispersing, грузики turn a cogwheel concerning a shaft of the distributor and thus the ignition moment depending on engine turns is corrected. The divergence size грузиков is defined by effort of returnable springs.
The vacuum regulator fixed on the case of the distributor of ignition, consists of the diaphragm block. To one party of a diaphragm depression from the carburetor moves through a hose. Other party of a diaphragm is connected by draft with the ignition distributor. Under the influence of depression the diaphragm is bent and through draft turns a basic plate against the direction of rotation of a shaft of the distributor and as a result it the corner of an advancing of ignition depending on engine loading is corrected.
The MSTS-i system has the ignition distributor with the Hall sensor (or the sensor of speed of rotation and the provision of a cranked shaft on the SZ X16 models), the sensor of absolute pressure in an inlet collector, the sensor of temperature of oil, the switchboard, the coil of ignition and spark plugs.
The effect of the Hall consists in voznikno veniye of cross-section electric field in a semiconductor plate with a current at action on it a magnetic field. The sensor consists of a constant magnet, a plate of the semiconductor and an integrated chip. Between a plate and a magnet there is a gap. In a gap of the sensor there is a steel screen with four cuts. When through a gap passes a screen cut, the plate of the semiconductor is affected by a magnetic field and from it the potential difference acts in film. If in a gap there is a screen body, magnetic power lines become isolated via the screen and a plate do not affect. In this case the potential difference on a plate does not arise. The integrated chip which has been built in the sensor, will transform a potential difference which is creating on a plate in negative impulses of tension of a certain size on an exit of the sensor. At rotation of a shaft of the distributor of ignition the contactless sensor gives out tension impulses on коммута Torahs. In turn the switchboard will transform them to impulses of a current of primary winding of the coil of ignition.
On models of 1,8 l for switching off of the tension submitted to the coil of ignition, the impulse of the sensor of speed and the provision of a cranked shaft which becomes more active a gear rotor on a cranked shaft is used. The gear rotor has 35 teeths located at identical distance and absent 36th tooth. The place where there is no tooth, is used by the sensor for definition of the top dead point of a cranked shaft.
Data on load of the engine arrive on the MSTS-i module from the sensor of pressure which is connected to the carburetor a vacuum tube. Also in the MSTS-i module additional information from the sensor of temperature of oil arrives. On the basis of information from sensors the MSTS-i module defines a demanded corner of an advancing of ignition.
Multec system with MSTS-i
The electronic system of ignition without mechanical elements incorporates the electronic control device (ECU) of ignition located in deepening for feet of the driver. The system of ignition consists of the distributor of the ignition put in action from the left end distributive bring down and a signal containing the amplifier, the switch of octane number of fuel, a spark plug, high-voltage wires and the ignition coil.
The ECU block operates system of ignition and system of injection of fuel and in fact, is a control system of the engine. For definition of a corner of an advancing of ignition the ECU block receives an inform a tsiya from the sensor of a cranked shaft (about frequency of rotation and the provision of a cranked shaft), from the sensor of temperature of cooling liquid and from the sensor of absolute pressure in an inlet collector (about load of the engine). Besides, the ECU block receives additional information on the established octane number of fuel and the control unit an automatic transmission (for smooth gear shifting the corner of an advancing of ignition decreases when switching).
The ECU block uses entrances from various sensors to calculate demanded installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition and time of accumulation of energy on the ignition coil.
The system of ignition possesses high sensitivity therefore even on turns of idling the neznachitel can but change a corner of an advancing of ignition. The system of ignition established on the C18 SZ models is similar described except that the amplifier of signals is executed in the form of the separate block. The ECU block determines turns and the provision of a cranked shaft of the engine by the sensor, fixed from the right forward party of the block of cylinders. The sensor becomes more active a special gear rotor with 58 teeths, established on a cranked shaft. The place on a rotor where there is no one tooth, is used by the sensor for definition of the top dead point of a cranked shaft.
On all SZ X16 engines and on XE DOHC C20 engines since 1993 instead of the distributor and the coil of ignition the DIS module is used. On the X16 engine the SZ DIS module is located on a cover of a head of the block of cylinders in that place where the distributor should be established. On HE C20 engines the sensor of provision of a camshaft is attached to a head of the block of cylinders instead of the ordinary distributor of ignition. The DIS module is bred on an arm and fastens to a head of the block of cylinders from a camshaft operating inlet valves.
The DIS module consists of two coils of ignition. Each coil of ignition actually consists of two separate high-voltage windings which submit a spark to two cylinders everyone (one - in cylinders 1 and 4, and another - in cylinders 2 and 3). The impulse of ignition moves at once on two spark plugs for each cylinder of the engine, one - on the compression step, one - on an exhaust step. The ignition spark on a step of an exhaust does not influence operation of the engine and consequently is spent for nothing. The ECU block uses entrances from various sensors to calculate demanded installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition and time of accumulation of energy on the ignition coil.
Motronic M4.1 system and М1.5
These systems operate ignition and fuel injection.
The ECU block of Motronic system receives information from the sensor of speed/provision of a cranked shaft, from the sensor of temperature of cooling liquid, устанав the livayemy thermostat in a casing, from the sensor of provision of a butterfly valve, from a measuring instrument of an air stream, and on models with the catalyst - from the oxygen sensor.
On the basis of information from sensors the ECU block operates the fuel pump, fuel nozzles, turns of idling and calculates demanded installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition and time of accumulation of energy on the ignition coil. This system provides optimum control of the engine on all operational modes, reducing fuel consumption and improving dynamic characteristics of the car at reduce scientific research institute of emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere.
Motronic M2.5 and М2.8 system
This system is similar described for models with SOHC engines about the following ми differences.
Together with the sensor of speed/provision of a cranked shaft the ignition distributor with the Hall sensor is used.
In system also separate switchboard which is established on an arm of the coil of ignition is used.
The ECU block receives additional information from the sensor of a detonation established on the block of cylinders. At emergence of a detonation the ECU block reduces a corner of an advancing of ignition and предотвра щает engine damage.
Simtec 56.1 system
In system of ignition of Simtec there are no mechanical knots.
The control unit the engine has system of electronic control by ignition which is called as microprocessor system of ignition with inductive management or MSTS-i. The control unit is located under the furnish panel on the right side in deepening for feet of the driver.
Instead of the ordinary coil of ignition the dual coil of ignition which copes the control unit is used.
On the basis of sensors of a camshaft and the inductive sensor of a cranked shaft the top dead point, an angle of rotation of a cranked shaft and engine turns is defined. On the basis of signals from sensors the control unit defines the moment of ignition and the moment of injection of fuel.
On the basis of information from the tape sensor of weight of a stream of air the ECU block defines amount of fuel for injection in the engine.
The sensor of temperature of air (NTS) arriving in the engine is established in the main air branch pipe between the air filter and a measuring instrument of a stream of air.
The control system of the engine also operates the canister valve with coal. Ventilation of a fuel tank is supervised by the sensor of oxygen and corrected by the control unit.
Also the control unit receives information from the detonation sensor. Because at emergence of a detonation in engine cylinders the sensor of a detonation reduces a corner of an advancing of ignition, installation of octane number of fuel is not required.